Международное торговое право - страница 26

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Section 2: Colombia


Pre-reading questions:
1. Where is Colombia located?
2. Is this country associated with drugs?
3. Have you heard anything about the Cali cartel?

Text 1


So the Cali cartel, once the world's most powerful criminal organisation, is dead, is it? The cartel's top bosses, most famously the Rodriguez Orejuela brothers, are now behind bars.
Until now, the biggest Cali bosses appeared to be safely behind bars. Too safe, complained American officials, who alleged that they have been running their drugs businesses from the comfort of their prison cells. The brutal slayings inside jail of two of Colombia's most notorious traffickers this month have silenced such talk. Now, the fear is that an all-out war might break out between the Cali has-beens and their putative successors.
On November 5th, a well-dressed man posing as a lawyer strolled on to the football pitch inside the Palmira maximum security prison near Cali. He warmly embraced Helmer «Pacho» Herrera – a top dog in the Cali mob – and, in front of Herrera's teammates, shot him six times in the head. Eight days later, Orlando Henao Montoya – the head of the Valle cartel. Call's one-time ally – was gunned down in another maximum-security prison. This time, it was Pacho's paraplegic brother who fired the shots from his electric wheelchair.
When the Cali leaders were rounded up in 1995 and 1996, Colombian and American authorities declared the mob shattered. But recent events suggest that, like the Valle mob, it remains a force to be reckoned with. The murders may be a sign that the mutual respect that once existed between the gangs is giving way to a power struggle. Equally worrying, say intelligence men, are signs that the biggest of the traffickers still at large are regrouping their operations.
^ Vocabulary notes


to allege


['le]
утверждать (особ, без основании)

brutal


['brutl]
жестокий, зверский

to slay (slew, slain)



(книжн.) убивать

putative


['pju:ttiv]
предполагаемый, мнимый

to pose as



принимать позу, вид (кого-либо)

to stroll



прогуливаться, бродить

pitch



1) обычное место; 2) партия товара; 3)
бросок, подача; 4) часть спортивного поля
между линиями подающих

mob



1) толпа, сборище; 2) (сленг) воровская
шайка

mobster



член воровской шайки

top dog



хозяин (положения)

team-mate



1) игрок/член той же команды; 2) член той
же воровской шайки

to shoot (shot, shot)



стрелять, застрелить

shot



выстрел

ally


['la]
союзник

ally of moment



временный союзник

paraplegic


[,pr'pl:k]
больной параплегией

(параплегия паралич обеих нижних или
верхних конечностей)

wheelchair



коляска (для инвалидов) в форме кресла на
колесах

to shatter



1) разбить (ся), раздробить; 2) расстраивать
(здоровье), разрушать (надежды)

event


['vent]
событие

to suggest


[s'est]
предполагать

to reckon with


['rekn]
считаться с

at large



на свободе


a

Choose the synonyms from the box:

to announce, to kill, to stay in prison, to shoot,


to begin, to seem, to walk, to silence


to stroll

..

to walle

......................

to appear

...................................

to be behind bars

.....................

to break out

...............................

to gun down

..............................

to declare

..................................

to slay

........................................

to stop

........................................

b

Match the English and Russian equivalents:

с

Find the English equivalents in the text:
может начаться открытая воина...........................................................................................................
недавние главари Кали..........................................................................................................................
их возможные преемники.....................................................................................................................
футбольная площадка...........................................................................................................................
тюрьма строгого режима.....................................................................................................................
бывший когда-то союзником Кали....................................................................................................
они объявили группировку уничтоженной.......................................................................................

d

Underline the adjectives in different degrees of comparison and explain their formation.

e

Underline the nouns to which the articles refer and translate the following into Russian:
the Call cartel.................................................................................................................
the world's most powerful criminal organization...........................................................
the Rodriguez Orejuela brothers....................................................................................
the brutal slayings..........................................................................................................
a well-dressed man........................................................................................................
to pose as a lawyer........................................................................................................
the Palmira maximum security prison..........................................................................
a power struggle...........................................................................................................

e

Explain the meaning of the following in English and give the Russian equivalents:
to run drug business from the comfort of the prison cells..............................................
these brutal slayings have silenced this talk...................................................................
when the Cali leaders were rounded up in 1995 and 1996.............................................
it remains a force to be reckoned with............................................................................
the mutual respect is giving way to a power struggle.....................................................

f

Make the following short assignments on Grammar:
1 The biggest Cali bosses appear to be safely behind bars.
Underline the Nominative with the Infinitive Construction.
2 American officials alleged that the biggest Cali bosses have been running drug business from prison.
In what Tenses are the verbs used?
Are the Rules of Sequence of Tenses observed here?
3 This time it was Pacho 's brother who fired the shots.
Is this construction very emphatic?
4 Equally worrying, say intelligence men, are signs that they are regrouping their operations.
Why do you think the word order is inverted here?

g

Write out the words from the text which show that:
1 The author doubts that the Call cartel is dead.
2 Many officials believed it was dead many years ago.
3 The gangsters are changing their tactics.

h

Write out all the information about the Cali mob from the text.

i

What's your opinion?
• Say why the Cali cartel and the Valle mobsters are not allies any longer, to your mind.
• What brought about their splitting.
Skim and scan:
Read the text quickly and answer the following questions:
1. Does the text give more details on the Cali drug cartel?
2. Can the text be entitled ^ Gringo Involvement
Text 2
Colombia's drugs police lately had another reminder of the narcotic trade's tight grip on the country. On November 9th, American officials discovered nearly half a tonne of cocaine and several kilograms of heroine on a Colombian Air Force plane in Florida. It is not the first time drugs have been found on air-force aircraft: two years ago, a stash of heroine was discovered on the plane that was about to take Mr. Samper to a United Nations meeting in New York.
On that occasion, officers denied the existence of a drug-trafficking ring within the air force. This time they are beating a humiliating retreat. The drug seizure forced the immediate resignation of the air-force chief, General Jose Manuel Sandoval; and six of his men have since been detained by the attorney-general's office. Both President Andres Pastrana and his defence minister say that they will, if necessary, let more heads roll to clean up the air force.
Mr. Pastrana may have more success in this than his predecessor did in busting the Cali cartel. He has a powerful new tool: extradition. A law introduced last year makes all traffickers arrested after it came into force eligible for extradition to the United States. Because the law is not retroactive this puts the mobsters already in jail out of America's reach – a loophole about which American officials have vehemently complained.
Colombians have always been keen – sometimes with reason to blame an American conspiracy for the latest surreal twist in their drugs wars. Some claimed to see gringo involvement in the recent prison killings. Speculation intensified last week when an agent from America's Drug Enforcement Administration was shot dead outside a fashionable Bogota nightspot. Police say the murder – the first killing of a DEA agent in Colombia – was the result of a bar-room brawl and had nothing to do with the current spate of drugs violence. Tell that to the conspiracy theorists!



reminder



напоминание

gentle reminder



намек

tight


[tat]
1) плотный 2) плотно прилегающий

grip



1) хватка, сжатие 2) власть, тиски

to secure a grip on smth



прибрать что-либо к рукам

to stash



(разг.) копить, припрятывать

humiliating


[hju:'mlet]
унизительный, оскорбительный


retreat


[r'tr:t]
отступление

to make good one's retreat



легко отделаться

resignation


[,rez'nen]
1) отставка; 2) заявление об отставке; 3) отказ от
(или уход с) должности

to detain


[d'ten]
1) задерживать; 2) арестовывать, содержать под
стражей

predecessor


['pr:dses]
предшественник

to bust



(сленг) схватить с поличным, арестовать

eligible


['lbl]
могущий, подходящий, имеющий право

loophole


['lu:phoul]
1) бойница, амбразура;

2) лазейка, увертка

vehement


['v:mnt]
сильный, неистовый

a man of vehement


character



человек с сильным характером

vehement desire



сильное желание

vehement wind



сильный ветер

keen



1) сильный; 2) сильно желающий

to be keen on smth



сильно желать чего-либо

to blame



обвинять

conspiracy


[kn'spars]
1) заговор, тайный сговор; 2) конспирация;

3) тайная подпольная организация

twist



1) изгиб, поворот; 2) характерная особенность,

отличительная черта (часто неодобрит.);

3) твист (танец)

to claim



1) заявлять; 2) требовать;

3) возбуждать иск о возмещении убытков

gringo



(презр.) гринго, иностранец, особ, англичанин

или американец (в Лат. Америке)

brawl


[bro:l]
шумная ссора, уличный скандал

spate


Tell that to the conspiracy


theorists!


(Tell that to the marines!)



излияние, проявление
Рассказывайте сказки!


a

Match the English and Russian equivalents:

b

Choose the synonyms from the box:

in that case, in this case, recently, inside, since then, about


lately

.......................................

nearly

............................................

on that occasion

....................

within

...........................................

this time

...............................

since

............................................

с

Choose the antonyms from the box:

native, appointment, attack, peace, successor, failure


predecessor

...........................

retreat

.....................................

gringo

....................................

success

.....................................

resignation

.............................

war

..........................................

d

Underline the basic nouns in the following word combinations and translate them into Russian (usually starting with the last word):
Colombia's drugs police...

Полиция Колумбии по борьбе с наркотиками

...............
narcotic trade's tight grip.................................................................................................
a Colombian Air Force plane..........................................................................................
a United Nations meeting................................................................................................
America's Drug Enforcement Administration................................................................
the recent prison killings................................................................................................
a bar-room brawl............................................................................................................

e

Choose the correct prepositions and write down a short sentence with each word-combination:
to find drugs at/on air-force aircraft
to discover heroine at/on the plane
to be detained at/by the attorney-general's office
to come in/into force
eligible for/to extradition from/of the USA
this puts the mobsters out of/off America's reach

f

Encircle the predicates, write down in what forms the verbs are used and complete the sentences:
1 The drug police lately had another reminder of..............................................................................................
2 It is not the first time drugs have been found within.......................................................................................
3 Six of his men have been.................................................................................................................................
4 Mr. Pastrana may have more success in this than his predecessor did in busting............................................
5 Colombians have always been keen to blame..................................................................................................

g

Group the following words and word combinations into a few logical units and fill in the table:

drugs police, to resign, extradition, narcotic trade, to detain,


in jail, to discover a stash of heroine, drug seizure,


to bust the cartel, mobster, conspiracy, to shoot dead,


involvement, current spate of drug violence




Group
1
2
3
4
5




h

Explain the meaning of the following words and word combinations in English and give Russian equivalents:
a retroactive law......................... to beat a humiliating retreat....................................
a loophole................................... the narcotic trade's tight grip on.............................
to be out of smb's reach.............. the country..............................................................
a drug-trafficking ring................ to be keen to blame an American............................
.................................................... conspiracy...............................................................

i

Find the answers in the text and write them down:
1 What did American officials discover on a Colombian Air Force plane in Florida on 9 November?.............
.............................................................................................................................................................................
2 What did it result in?.......................................................................................................................................
3 What law was introduced to combat drug trafficking in Colombia?..............................................................
4 What are the weak points of the law?.............................................................................................................
5 What do Colombians think about American involvement?.........................................................................

j

Use your imagination and describe:
• how a DEA agent was killed in Colombia
• what newspapers wrote about that
• what conclusion the author of this article makes about American involvement

k

Write down your own title of this article and say why you like it.

l

Have a look at the picture and answer the following questions:

One last drag


1 Who do you think this young man is?
2 Do you believe he is really making the last drag?
3 Are many young people becoming drug addicts in all the countries of the world?
4 Is it easy to give up smoking, inhaling or having drugs, according to professional doctors?
5 Do you know the names of famous people who managed to give up drugs taking?
6 Is drugs taking illegal in all the countries?
7 Is drugs trafficking illegal in all the contries?
8 What do anti-drugs law adopted in Russia say?

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