Раздел 1. Cultural and Educational Matters Education Glossary - Учебник по прак тике и теории устного перевода

Раздел 1. Cultural and Educational Matters Education Glossary


NB!

Pay special attention to education
are vastly different, автореферат аспирант ассистент аттестат зрелости аудитория балл ВУЗ (высшее учебное заведение)
выпускник двойка декан
детский сад диссертация
диплом
дипломная работа дневник докторская степень
дошкольные учреждения доцент
заочные курсы
завкафедрой
записаться на семинар
зачет
институт
интернат
кандидатская степень
terminology as Russian and foreign systems
published dissertation summary
graduate student, post graduate student
instructor, teaching fellow
high school diploma/GCE (GB)
classroom
point (on an exam)
institute of higher learning/college/
university
graduate
D
dean
kindergarten, day-care centre
thesis, dissertation
NB! Тезис: ^ Тезисы (доклада) — the
summary of a report, the main ideas.
Тезис means a basic assumption, idea
diploma
senior thesis/diploma paper
record of marks
doctorate; Soviet and Russia's highest
graduate degree, higher than American
Ph.D.
preschool facilities
assistant professor (approximate
equivalent)
non-matriculated/correspondence course
head of chair, department chairman
take/enrol in/register for a seminar
credit, pass for a course
institute
boarding school
Ph.D.
47
кандидатский минимум кафедра курсовая работа
курсы повышения квалификации лаборант
медицинский факультет научный руководитель научный сотрудник начальная школа обязательный предмет обязательное обучение окончить (университет) окончить (школу) оппонент отличник
педагогический институт плата за обучение посещать занятия поступать в университет поступить в университет преподаватель
ПТУ (профессионально-техническое училище) пятерка (четверка, тройка) ректор
сдавать экзамен сдать экзамен сессия
специальность, специализироваться в...
средняя школа/высшая школа степень
степень бакалавра степень магистра стипендия студент техникум ученик
учеба без отрыва от производства учитель факультативный предмет
written Ph.D. exams, comprehensives
chair/department
term paper
advanced course/refresher course
departmental/laboratory assistant
medical school
thesis adviser
research associate/researcher
elementary school
required course
compulsory education
to graduate (from a university)
to leave school (school leaver)
discussant at dissertation summary
A student
teacher's college/teacher's trainings college
tuition (fee)
to go to class, attend class
to apply to a university
to be admitted to a university
teacher, instructor
vocational school
A (B, C)
university chancellor/provost/rector
to take an exam
to pass an exam
exam period
major (my major is Law),
to major in something
high school/higher school
academic degree
B.A. (Bachelor of Arts)
M.A. (Master of Arts)
scholarship /grant
college student
technical school
pupil, high-school student
part-time study
high-school teacher
elective course

48

факультет
школа продленного дня
шпаргалка
юридический факультет ясли
division (e.g. филологический, философский) faculty school with after-school activities programme pony, trot law school nursery, crbche

^ Compiled by L. Viss'on
Education, Languages and Culture
Translate into Russian.
Text 1

. Language Teaching for the Space Age


Many of us seem to speak foreign language after drinking, but Alex Matheou went one even better. After sharing a bottle with his friend Dmitry Fedotov, he went on to set up a language teaching firm in Korolyev that has just introduced interactive language teaching to the Russian space agency.
Three years after the last of the vodka was consumed, Alex's firm, Anglo-Russian Cultural Exchanges (АРКО) has just become the exclusive distributor for Macmillan publisher's English language books, and

is breakining new ground in

using computer technology for teaching.
Matheou was on the other side of the learning fence until 1994,

doing

a Russian studies

degree

at the School of Slavonic and East European Studies in London. He went to Russia in 1994 to teach at the Nikitin Center at School No. 18 in Korolyev (then Kaliningrad) — the center of the space industry in the Moscow Region. It was there that he met Dmitry Fedotov, and language teaching business began, based on new demand for learning English that the two saw in the town.
"The first year was very small scale," Matheou remembers.
"We ran a few courses from home, and only worked in Kaliningrad and Alfa Bank in Moscow. We advertised for teachers to come out and got our first courses running."
It wasn't all

plain sailing.

Problems with teachers adapting to Russia were common, especially among those unfamiliar with the rather erratic way

of working here.


^ Culture Shock


"It was sometimes difficult for people to understand why timetables would suddenly change, contracts started and finished suddenly, all this part of the culture shock," Matheou says.
49

The culture shock was not all one way. There was the reaction of the local administration, which at that time had no idea how to deal with a British company in Kaliningrad.
"The banks would not deal with us because we weren't a company. The administration would not deal with us or register us as a company without a hank account," Matheou says. His firm was the first British company to register with the town. This

was coupled with

a hesitance on the part of the local education authorities to deal with a private company, for which there was no precedent.
"We were told 'we don't know how to do it, but you are in trouble if you get it wrong," Matheo remembers local officialdom as saying.
"So much of that has gone now, thankfully," he says.
We have good links with the local education authority and it has really

paid off.

Now when we make contracts with other towns to set up things, the fact that we have links with the education system here carries a lot of weight. People are a lot less suspicious."
In the firm's second year, 1995, twelve teachers came to Korolyev, and the firm became a sub-distributor for Oxford University Press English language books in Russia, a link the firm retains as the second-biggest distributor in Russia.

^ Branching Out


The firm

branched out into

a new field in 1996. Despite it being the most successful year for the company in terms ot recruiting teachers and running courses, the age of interactive computers arrived in Russia. A new interactive language program called Language Express was introduced. And АРКО was quick to grasp its potential.
"Basically it's flexible. Unlike a teacher, it's never ill, it's always there and it's ready for the client whenever they want it," Matheou says.
The idea of using a computer to teach students a foreign language was another

hard pill for Russia to swallow,

and the first clients were banks, for whom time was of the essence and long term language development a must — as well as having access to the necessary computer equipment and paying for the cost of the system.

Live or CD?


Language Express is one of the very few systems of its kind, and is regarded as the market leader. Set at various levels of ability, the system (now available on CD-ROM) shows a student a short presentation in English, then presents them with a few exercises on practical English, asking questions and even demonstrating concepts, meanings and pronunciation. Students can even record their voices for comparison with the film.
50
The day of the language teacher is not yet over! Whilst the system is designed to be used by itself if need be, a combination of twenty per cent teacher and eighty per cent computer work is optimal.
The latest potential customer for the system is the town's

raison d'etre

— the Russian Space Agency (PKA) space control center, whose staff have

to be conversant in

English when talking to mission controllers in Houston or European Space Agency officials in Paris.
And on top of all this thankfully, Alex and Dima still have fine time to crack a bottle.
^ By H.Gethin

Text 2. Dreams Change with U.S. Exchange


At this time last year, Irina Penchenkova had

her heart set on

becoming an attorney in her native Smolensk. That's changed her life.
"I went to America," said Penchenkova, 16, who recently returned from 11 months in rural Minnesota. "I saw the O.J. Simpson trial and now I know that I don't want to be a lawyer."
Not all of the 1,400

high school exchange students

who just came back from the United States had their dreams so drastically altered. Some were merely disabused of peculiar notions. Take Ilya Smetanin, 17, who spent the last year in South Florida.
"I think that a woman could be a Russian president, if she were good enough," he said during a recent Moscow session designed to help arrivals readjust to Russia. "Before, I looked at women as inferior to men."
For three years, thousands of students like Smetanin and a few hundred Americans

traveling a reverse path

have benefited from a U.S. government program funded under the Freedom Support Act. The exchange,

by far

the biggest of its kind, has sent more than 4,200 students at no cost to themselves from the

Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)

to U.S. cities and towns.

^ Exchange Effort


The effort has steadily grown in size since starting in 1992 and will include some 1,630 students this academic year. That number, however, is almost certain to become smaller as the U.S. Congress continues reducing the amount of money spent on foreign aid.
"The overall exchange budget is much less for the coming year," Ralph Posner, a legislative assistant to U.S. Senator Bill Bradley, said in a telephone interview from Washington. "Our program, like all the others, will face some cuts."
Bradley, a three-term Democrat from New Jersey, has been the principal champion of the high school exchange program. According to Posner, the CIS high school exchange program had $41.5 million in
51
funding for the 1995-96 academic year, a figure which would likely be reduced to $25 million for the following academic year. Whatever happens, Posner said the academic exchange programs covering the CIS are likely to fare better than those in other parts of the world.
The relevant congressional committees "have all said that we should focus our efforts on Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union," said Posner. "So, if that is not represented in the final budget 1 don't think it will be approved."

Cutbacks


The staff is

readying itself for cutbacks

in the Moscow offices of the American Council of Teachers of Russian (ACTR)/American Council for Collaboration in Education and Language Study, a nonprofit organization which administers the exchange program for most of the CIS. In an effort to protect more sports for students, the ACTR is

streamlining

(improving) the extensive student testing and screening process, said Kathy Lotspeich, 25, who oversees programs for returned students.
In working directly with hundreds of returning high school students from throughout the CIS, Lotspeich, like some of the students interviewed, said she has a difficult time understanding the political climate in the United States that produces such cutbacks.
"We have gotten really selfish over there, I think," said Lotspeich, an American from Cincinnati. "These kids come back with an incredible desire to change the future."
"They know what they want to do and are excited," she said. "They want to write constitutions, be diplomats, doctors ... One girl from Yaroslavl wrote me that she wants to open a business but her parents don't believe in her. But she said she knows that she can do it."

^ Cultures Clash


At a recent session at Moscow's Izmailovo hotel complex held by ACTR staff for recent returnees, a number of students expressed less concern with such

lofty goals.

There were negative experiences, too. One girl said she witnessed domestic violence in her host family and was transferred.
Some teenagers

shared notes on

immediate problems like gaining entry to university and possibility of being drafted into the Russian military. They also talked about their experiences of readjusting to life in Russia.
"When she first saw me, my mother said: "You look fat like a cow," recalled Yulia Suvorova, 18, a Muscovite back from Harlem, Georgia. "There is so much junk food over there that you gain a lot of weight."
While some of the teenagers focused on changes — ranging from hairstyle to world outlook — others talked about

remaining steadfast in

there convictions.
52
"I'm an atheist and my family was a Baptist family and it was really uncomfortable when they wanted me to believe," said Penchenkova, just returned from North Branch, Minnesota "They did their best. They bought me a Bible, a video. But I remained an atheist. I think they were kind of disappointed in a way."
American consumerism, too, was another aspect of life in the United States which a number of returnees said they will not miss.
"You have to work for money, sure, but it is not the main thing in life. You have love," said one 18-year-old girl, who, like the others, was given a $100 monthly

allowance

(суточные).
Dispel Misconceptions
For Lotspeich, who takes part in such re-entry seminars all over the CIS, the fact that students accept and reject different parts of U.S. culture — along with being obliged to reexamine their own — is an invaluable process.
"I think it will make a big difference in the future. This generation is very different," she said. "This generation grew up without any propaganda and was able to go to America and see what they want to change and what they don't want to change. They are on fire."
On the most basic level, the Freedom Support Act program is designed to

dispel misconceptions

and

set

people

straight about

faraway cultures. At the recent session for returnees, the Russian teenagers revealed in relating some of the questions Americans had about Russia. Some of their favorites:
"Do you speak Russian?"
"Are there television sets there?"
"Do women shave their legs?"
"Are there stars in the sky?"
^ By F. Brown
Education and Business
Text 1

. U.S. Cuts Down Number of Busines Internships

(стажировка)
The American government has cut the number of Russian business managers it will accept this year for an

intership program

at companies in the United States, Russian and U.S. officials said.
The Russian business-manager training program was launched in 1997. Last July, President Vladimir Putin signed an extension of the program until 2003.
Some people are worried that fewer Russians will

sign up for

the program now that the popular destination — America — won't be as easy
53
to reach. Russian officials, however, say that they have confidence the program will remain effective and said that other countries are also accepting participants.
The program consists of mid-level managers, generally age 27-40, leaving their companies to train at Russian educational institutions and then to travel to the States

for internships

at companies for about three weeks.
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